Michigan Copper and Iron Mining History and Politics
Class generated exam questions:

1. What was one of the earliest and most common ways of seperating the copper from rock?
By using steam to smash the rock and breaking it apart from the copper and then running the rock and copper through water where you could collect out the copper.

2. How did Transportation affect the mining industry? (Kait Greathouse)
Transportation had three big hurdles. The first was getting the product to the water. Some mines used trains to ship the ore to the harbors. Some mines, like the Carp Lake mine, had no trains and had to cart the ore to the water’s edge. The second hurdle was shipping on the Lakes. Huge storms could appear out of nowhere on Lake Superior and the lake was unforgiving to docks, usually destroying them within a few years, which made loading an issue. On top of that it was near impossible to ship during for six months of every year due to the storms and ice. The final hurdle was getting the ore passed the St. Mary’s River. Until the Sault Lochs were constructed in 1855 the ships had to n load their cargo and move it by wagon around the rapids before loading it onto another ship. When the lochs opened mining became far more profitable and shipping far easier.

3. Give a brief discription of the Quincy Mine Shaft No. 2 and how it worked? (Heather Bartels)
The Quince Mine Shaft No. 2 reached a depth of 9,260 feet on the incline to the earth. It was only in commission for 11 years before it was shut down. The Quincy Mining Company commissioned construction of the Nordberg Stream Hoist in 1918. The hoist had over 4 miles of cable that would move men, ore, water, and explosive in and out of the mines at a top speed of 30 m.p.h. When the skip would reach the top it would either be stopped by the engineer for the workers to get off or it would be dumped and the process would start over. The steam hoist work much like an elliptical machine rotating the skips back and forth.

4. How Many shot glasses equal a Gill? (Jeff Janofski)
4.1 Besides visually seeing Iron Ore, what was another method of the early pioneers used to detect if there was Iron Ore below the surface? Their compass would spin in circles

5. What was your favorit historic site visited explain why- Jeffery Dewaters

6. How did the Coriolis Force effect the Ontonagon lighthouse? (Amber LeClear)
As a result of the Coriolis Force, an apparent force as a result of the Earth’s spin, the sand that would wash up to shore piled up in front of the lighthouse. After years of build up, the light house now rests too far from the lake shore to ensure safe entry into the harbor.

7. What role did Fayette play in the mining industry. Jeff Fisher
Iron ore was shipped by barge from Escanoba and unloaded in Fayette. Then it was mixed with dolomite and charcoal in the smelting process. The liquid iron was then flowed into sand forms where it was allowed to cool. When the it had cooled it was called "pig iron".

8. What was the significance of the education systems within the mining communities? (David Eggleston)
The mines in the area would provide the majority of funding to the school districts within their region. This amount of influence was reflected within the curriculum of the schools of the regions. These schools curriculums incorporated the basic classes, math, sciences, reading, etc., along with traits, like carpentry. The mines also kept un wanted literature, like Karl Marx’s works, out of the schools and libraries, attempting to keep socialist ideas and movements from occurring. The primary goal of the school was to produce quality and trained workers for the mines. This also helped Americanize the immigrant’s children and increase the English skills of the children and their families. The quality schools helped attract and retain workers.

9. Why were the Michigan logging wheels developed for the logging industry? (Ashley Holloway)
Also known as Big Wheels, the wheels were invented for the ability to transport logs without the need for icy roads. The wheels using horses, could transport several logs at a time ranging upwards of 100 feet in length. The logs were held by a chain that suspended the weight from the axle allowing stability and ensuring that the wheels did not sink. The implementation of the wheels allowed for increased production during all seasons in the logging industry-

10. What contributed to the brownish color of the water at the Tahquamenon Falls?
Leaching tanic acids from the hemlock and cedar swamps that surround and feed the falls at the state park

11. What is the maximum total miles a lift cart could travel during an 8 hour shift at the Quincy Mine? (Joe Fuld)
The hoist weighed about 880 tons and could move up to around 10 tons of rock per cart. the carts top speed was 36.5 miles per hour which means the cart would travel 292 miles every 8 hours. You could then consider the fact that there are two carts which means both carts travel 584 miles.